Dear present and future ECOG members, you can find some interesting books and papers about paediatric obesity which are listed below.




1.       Walter Burniat , Tim.J.Cole , Inge Lissau , Elizabeth M. E. Poskitt : Child and Adolescent Obesity Causes and Consequences, Prevention and Management.

Cambridge University Press, 2002. ISBN 0-521-65237-5.

2.       Margherita A.Caroli,Ranjit K.Chandra,Marie Laure Frelut : Childhood Obesity From Basic Science to Public Health. Giuseppe de Nicola Editore Napoli. 2004 ISBN 88-7327-035-2


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Rolland-Cachera MF. Childhood obesity: current definitions and recommendations for their use. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(5-6):325-31

Many suggestions were proposed by ECOG members, but due to the shorter length allowed for the final version of the article, it was not possible to develop all the points raised. The ECOG comments are presented here with complementary information and additional references.


Comments on childhood obesity definition paper



A protocol for the study of childhood obesity prevalence was established 11 years ago by ECOG (Lehingue Y. The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) project: the European collaborative study on the prevalence of obesity in children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:166S-8S).

This protocol was described in detail for the study evaluating the prevalence of childhood obesity in France. It includes questionnaires, instructions for measurements, information letters etc….

This detailed protocol was first available in French and is now available in English.
This document can assist in designing and conducting studies on prevalence of childhood obesity and facilitate international comparisons.


ECOG study protocol



·         ECOG Prevalence Protocol (English version) - PDF



·         Poskitt EM. Defining childhood obesity: the relative body mass index (BMI). European Childhood Obesity group. Acta Paediatr. 1995 Aug;84(8):961-3.

·         Lehingue Y. The European Childhood Obesity Group (ECOG) project: the European collaborative study on the prevalence of obesity in children.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jul;70(1 Part 2):166S-168S.

·         Rolland-Cachera MF, Castetbon K, Arnault N, Bellisle F, Romano MC, Lehingue Y,Frelut ML, Hercberg S. Body mass index in 7-9-y-old French children: frequency of obesity, overweight and thinness Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Dec;26(12):1610-6.

·         Lobstein T, Frelut ML. Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe.
Obes Rev. 2003 Nov;4(4):195-200.

·         Flodmark CE, Lissau I, Moreno LA, Pietrobelli A, Widhalm K. New insights into the field of children and adolescents' obesity: the European perspective. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28;(10):1189-96.

·         Pietrobelli A. Outcome measurements in paediatric obesity prevention trials. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28 Suppl 3:S86-9.

·         Molnar D. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28 Suppl 3:S70-4.

·         Malecka-Tendera E, Erhardt E, Molnar D. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in European children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2005 May;94(5):543-6.

·         Widhalm K, Fussenegger D. Actions and programs of European countries to combat obesity in children and adolescents: a survey. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Sep;29 Suppl 2:S130-5.

·         Malecka-Tendera E, Mazur A. Childhood obesity: a pandemic of the twenty-first century. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Jun;30 Suppl 2:S1-3.

·         Invitti C, Guzzaloni G, Gilardini L, Morabito F, Viberti G. Prevalence and concomitants of glucose intolerance in European obese children and adolescents. Diabetes Care. 2003 Jan;26(1):118-24.

·         Invitti C, Maffeis C, Gilardini L, Pontiggia B, Mazzilli G, Girola A, Sartorio A,Morabito F, Viberti GC. Metabolic syndrome in obese Caucasian children: prevalence using WHO-derived criteria and association with nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006 Apr;30(4):627-33.

·         Moreno L, Gonzalez-Gross M, Kersting M, Molnar D, de Henauw S, Beghin L, M, Hagstramer M, Manios Y, Gilbert C, Ortega F, Dallongeville J, Marcella  D,Warnberg J, Hallberg M, Fredriksson H, Maes L, Widhalm K, Kafatos A, Marcos A.  Assessing, understanding and modifying nutritional status, eating habits and physical activity in European adolescents: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle In Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutr. 2007 Jul 6;:1-12

·         Molnar D. New drug policy in childhood obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Sep;29 Suppl 2:S62-5.

·         Reinehr T, Kiess W, de Sousa G, Stoffel-Wagner B, Wunsch R. Intima media thickness in childhood obesity: relations to inflammatory marker, glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. Metabolism. 2006 Jan;55(1):113-8.

·         Reinehr T. Clinical presentation of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Sep;29 Suppl 2:S105-10.

·         Wabitsch M, Hauner H, Hertrampf M, Muche R, Hay B, Mayer H, Kratzer W, Debatin KM, Heinze E. Type II diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose regulation in Caucasian children and adolescents with obesity living in Germany. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Feb;28(2):307-13.

·         Fischer-Posovszky P, Wabitsch M, Hochberg Z. Endocrinology of adipose tissue - an update. Horm Metab Res. 2007 May;39(5):314-21.

·         Malecka-Tendera E, Klimek K, Matusik P, Olszanecka-Glinianowicz M, Lehingue Y;the Polish Childhood Obesity Study Group. Obesity and overweight prevalence in Polish 7- to 9-year-old children. Obes Res. 2005 Jun;13(6):964-8.

·         Brambilla P, Lissau I, Flodmark C-E, Moreno LA, Widhalm K, Wabitsch M, Pietrobelli A. Metabolic risk-factor clustering estimation in children: to draw a line across paediatric metabolic syndrome. Int J Obes 2007; 31: 591-600.

·         Caroli M, Argentieri L, Cardone M, Masi A. Role of television in childhood obesity prevention. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28 Suppl 3:S104-8.

·         Fernandez JR, Redden DT, Pietrobelli A, Allison DB. Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. J Pediatr 2004;145;(4):439-44.

·         Lissau I, Overpeck MD, Ruan WJ, Due P, Holstein BE, Hediger ML. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European countries, Israel, and the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2004;158; (1):27-33. Prevalence pictures.

·         Moreno LA, Tomas C, Gonzalez-Gross M, Bueno G, Perez-Gonzalez JM, Bueno M. Micro-environmental and socio-demographic determinants of childhood obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004;28 Suppl 3:S16-20.

·         Weghuber D, Zaknun D, Nasel C, Willforth-Ehringer A, Müller T, Boriss-Riedl M, Widhalm K. Early cerebrovascular disease in a 2-year-old with extreme obesity and complete metabolic syndrome due to feeding of excessively high amounts of energy. Eur J Pediatr. 2007 Jan;166(1):37-41.